Botanical gardens dedicate their resources to the study and conservation of plants, as well as to making the public aware of the diversity of plant species in the world. These gardens also play a central role in satisfying human needs and in providing well-being. botanical gardens provide valuable information on various plants: local flora, bonsai, rare plants, etc. They act as “outdoor laboratories” for students and researchers.
Botanical gardens are usually managed by universities or other scientific research organizations, and they usually have herbaria and associated research programs in plant taxonomy or some other aspect of botanical science. In principle, its function is to maintain documented collections of living plants for scientific research, conservation, exhibition and education, although this will depend on the resources available and the special interests pursued in each particular garden. Staff will normally include botanists and gardeners. Over the years, botanical gardens, as cultural and scientific organizations, have responded to the interests of botany and horticulture.
Nowadays, most botanical gardens show a mix of the topics mentioned and more; by having a strong connection with the general public, there is an opportunity to provide visitors with information related to the environmental problems they face in the early 21st century, especially those related to plant conservation and sustainability. The term tends to be used somewhat differently in different parts of the world. For example, a large wooded garden with a good collection of rhododendrons and other flowering tree and shrub species is very likely to be presented as a botanical garden if it is located in the U.S. In the US, but it's highly unlikely to do so in the UK (unless it also contains other relevant features).
Very few of the sites used for the United Kingdom's dispersed National Plant Collection, which generally house large collections from a particular taxonomic group, would be called botanical gardens. A botanical garden is a controlled and staffed institution for the maintenance of a living collection of plants under scientific management for education and research purposes, together with the libraries, herbaria, laboratories and museums that are essential to their particular activities. Each botanical garden naturally develops its own special fields of interest depending on its staff, location, extent, available funding and the terms of its statute. It may include greenhouses, testing grounds, a herbarium, an arboretum, and other departments.
It maintains a scientific and plant cultivation team, and publication is one of its main modes of expression. The history of botanical gardens is closely related to the history of botany itself. The botanical gardens of the 16th and 17th centuries were medicinal gardens, but the idea of a botanical garden changed to encompass the exhibition of the beautiful, strange, new and sometimes economically important trophies of plants that were returned from European colonies and other distant lands. Later, in the 18th century, they acquired a more educational function, demonstrating the latest plant classification systems devised by botanists who worked in associated herbaria when trying to organize these new treasures.
Then, in the 19th and 20th centuries, the trend was toward a combination of specialized and eclectic collections that demonstrated many aspects of horticulture and botany. The tradition of these Italian gardens passed to Spain, to the Botanical Garden of Valencia, 156 and to Northern Europe, where similar gardens were established in the Netherlands (Hortus Botanicus Leiden, 1590; Hortus Botanicus (Amsterdam), 163, Germany (Alter Botanischer Garten, Tübingen, 1535; Leipzig Botanicus Botanicus, 1535). Garden, 1580; Botanischer Garten Jena, 1586; Botanischer Garten Heidelberg, 1593; Herrenhäuser Gärten, Hanover, 1666; Botanischer Garten der Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, 1669; Berlin Botanical Garden, 167, Switzerland (Former Botanical Garden, Zurich, 1560); Basel, 158; England (Oxford University) Garden Botanist, 1621; Physical Garden of Chelsea, 167; Scotland (Royal Botanic Garden of Edinburgh, 1670); and in France (Jardin des Plantes de Montpellier, 1593; Garden of the Faculty of Medicine, Paris, 1597; Jardin des Plantes, Paris, 163), Denmark (Botanical Garden of the University of Copenhagen, 1600); Sweden (Uppsala) University, 165.The 18th century was marked by the introductions of Cape South Africa, including heathers, geraniums, pelargoniums, succulents and proteaceous plants, while Dutch trade with the Dutch East Indies led to a golden era for the Leiden and Amsterdam botanical gardens and a boom in the construction of conservatories. In Sri Lanka, the main botanical gardens include the Royal Peradeniya Botanical Garden (formally established in 1884), the Hakgala Botanical Garden (186) and the Henarathoda Botanical Garden (187).
The Quito botanical garden is a park, a botanical garden, an arboretum and greenhouses of 18,600 square meters, that is, it planned to increase, maintain the country's plants (Ecuador is among the 17 richest countries in the world in terms of native species, a study on this topic). Ecuadorian flora (classified, determines the existence of 17,000 species) Among the smallest gardens in Russia, one that is gaining increasing importance, is the Botanical Garden of the State University of Tver (187), the northernmost botanical garden with an exhibition of steppe plants, the only of its kind in El Alto Volga. Ukraine has about 30 botanical gardens. The most famous of them with highly respected collections are the Nikitsky Botanical Garden in Yalta, founded in 1812, M, M.
The Gryshko National Botanical Garden, a botanical garden of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine founded in 1936, and A, V. The Fomin Botanical Garden of the Taras Shevchenko National University in Kiev, founded in 1839, is located in Kiev, the capital of Ukraine. In the second half of the 20th century, educational, visitor service and interpretation services became increasingly sophisticated. Botanical gardens began to serve many interests and their exhibitions reflected this, often including botanical exhibitions on topics of evolution, ecology or taxonomy, horticultural displays of attractive flower beds and herbaceous borders, plants from different parts of the world, special collections of plant groups, such as bamboos or roses, and specialized greenhouse collections, such as tropical plants, alpine plants, cacti and orchids, as well as traditional herbal and medicinal plant gardens.
Specialized gardens, such as the Palmengarten in Frankfurt (Germany) (186), one of the world's leading collections of orchids and succulents, have been very popular. There was a renewed interest in native plant gardens and areas dedicated to natural vegetation. Many gardens now have plant stores that sell flowers, herbs and vegetable seedlings suitable for transplantation; many, such as the UBC Botanical Garden and Plant Research Center and the Chicago Botanical Garden, have plant breeding programs and introduce new plants to the horticultural trade. Botanical Garden of the University of British Columbia, Canada Inside the Botanical Garden of the University of Coimbra, Portugal Kirstenbosch National Botanical Garden, South Africa Buenos Aires Botanical Garden, Argentine Antarctic Garden, Hobart Botanical Garden, Tasmania, Australia Main Building of the Botanical Garden of the University of Tartu, Estonia Kahuna Garden, National Botanical Garden, Maui, Hawaii BGCI garden ID, Botanical Garden, Europe.
Many of the functions of botanical gardens have already been discussed in the previous sections, which emphasize the scientific basis of botanical gardens with their focus on research, education and conservation. They are valuable not only for botanists, horticulturists and foresters, but also for millions of tourists. In the 18th century, botanists working in herbaria and universities associated with gardens devised naming and classification systems, systems that were often exhibited in gardens as beds for educational requests. Other botanical gardens in the country include the Walter Sisulu National Botanical Garden, the Harold Porter National Botanical Garden and the Karoo Desert National Botanical Garden.
However, Handerson (198) documented 800 of them in the “International Directory of Botanical Gardens”. Botanical gardens are reservoirs of valuable hereditary characteristics, potentially important in the reproduction of new varieties of plants. If only one function were chosen from early literature on botanical gardens, it would be its scientific effort and, based on that, its didactic value. What can be called the roots of the botanical garden as an institution dates back to ancient China and to many of the countries that border the Mediterranean.
In the early 19th century, Jean Gesner, a Swiss physician and botanist, noted that by the end of the 18th century there were 1,600 botanical gardens in Europe. The Secretariat for the Conservation of Botanical Gardens was established by IUCN and the World Conservation Union in 1987 with the objective of coordinating plant conservation efforts in botanical gardens around the world. During the 18th and 19th centuries, the science of botany took shape, and many of the important botanists of the time were directors of the botanical gardens of their time. The golden age of the garden came in the 18th century, when it became the richest botanical garden in the world.
The initial concern for medicinal plants changed in the 17th century to an interest in new imports of plants from explorations outside Europe, as botany gradually established its independence from medicine. Botanical gardens are still being built, such as the first botanical garden in Oman, which will be one of the largest gardens in the world. . .